July 5, 2011 § Leave a comment
I always find myself asking the same two questions : What and Why? Maybe because I like to discover, don’t you? and I think about music a lot as well.Well, you never asked yourself what is music? an art isn’t it? A different kind of art that you cannot see, you cannot touch but you can feel (you hear)! Basically yes.. On the other hand every single tune, every single music you hear is a piece of art? Contestable.
Let’s see what we find in the dictionary:
an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color.
the tones or sounds employed, occurring in single line (melody) or multiple lines (harmony), and sounded or to be sounded by one or more voices or instruments, or both.
musical work or compositions for singing or playing.
Interesting, “musical work or composition for singing or playing”. So how do you sing or play? In the first place, all music must be written before it can be read, understood, and played by musicians. So basically you need a system of notation that gives musicians the information they need to play music as the composer intended it. So, what is this notation? Very basically, any system that represents aurally perceived music, through the use of written symbols.
I hear you asking what are these symbols then? Staff, cleves, measures, notes, rests, accidentals…
I don’t want to confuse you on going through all of these, but there is something I am interested the most: Notes.
What is a note?
a sign used in musical notation to represent the relative duration and pitch of a sound;
a pitched sound itself.
The pitch describes how low or high a note sounds. Sound is made up of waves which have a speed or frequency that they vibrate at. The pitch of the note changes depending on the frequency of these vibrations. The higher the frequency of the wave, the higher the pitch of the note will sound. In traditional music theory pitch classes are represented by the first seven letters of the Latin alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F and G).
A, B, C, D, E, F, G? What about Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si???
Let’s have a look to music history now, Who invented the notation that’s used on sheet music today or do you ever think why we use letter names in musical notation?
The earliest form of musical notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet that was created at Nippur, Iraq in about 2000 B.C. Also, Ancient Greek musical notation was capable of representing pitch and note-duration, and harmony.We see tablets which have letters of the Greek alphabet with symbols written on the top called Neums which indicate the pitches of the notes.The Roman writer and statesman Boethius was the first person who wrote on musical notation book (De institutione musica). In this book Boetius used the first fifteen letters of the alphabet to signify the notes of the two-octave range that was in use at the time.This became known as Boethian notation.Following this, the system of repeating letters A-G in each octave was introduced.
In Italian, Portuguese, Greek, French, Russian, Flemish, Romanian, Spanish, Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, Bulgarian and Turkish notation the notes of scales are given in terms of Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol-La-Si rather than C-D-E-F-G-A-B.The founder of this original names is an Italian Benedictine monk called Guido d’Arezzo. He had taken them from a Gregorian Chant melody “Ut queant laxis” written by the Lombard historian Paul the Deacon. This evolved over time into the syllables Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol-La-Si/Ti-Do. Let me write you the first stanza ( I really like it)
1. Ut queant laxis
2. resonare fibris,
3. Mira gestorum
4. famuli tuorum,
5. Solve polluti
6. labii reatum,
7. Sancte Iohannes.
You can clearly see Ut, Re, Mi Fa, Sol, La, and Si (the exception being Si, which has the S of Sancte and the I of Iohannes). Ut later on changed to Do (for Dominus) so that God could be the beginning of the musical scale.
On the other hand, when we have a look to English-speaking world, rather then do-re-mi they use an updated version of the old Roman system.A through G, for the pitches of an octave.
Finally, wherever it starts or however it changes, the music is an international language, spreaded all over the world and always gives you the same, familiar feeling.
May 22, 2011 § Leave a comment
MUSIC COMPOSED WITH OR ALTERED BY ELECTRONICS HAS A LONG AND INVOLVED HISTORY EARLY EXPERIMENTAL INSTRUMENTS include the Clavecin Electrique or Electric Harpsichord of Delaborade in Paris (1971) and Elisha Gray’s Electroharmonic Piano in Chicago (1876). Some composers used their instruments to imitate styles and materials of their times. Many others, however, attempted to develop a unique aesthetic wherein any sound could act as a resource for coposing. Hoffman’s The Automaton in the early nieteenth century and the Art of Noises (1913) by the Italian futurist Luigi Russolo evidence these attempts. From 1920 to 1940, composers such as Otto Luening, Norman McLaren, Pierre Schaeffer, Leon Theremin (who in 1923 invented the Theremin), Friederich Trautwein, Paul Hindemith, and Ernst Toch also began to experiment with electronic instruments.
Around 1920, Leo Theremin invented the Theremin. Originally called the etherophane and thereminovox, performers moved their hands in its viciity to create pitches and glissandi between pitches caused by heterodyning.
Joerg Mager created his Klaviatur-Spaeron in 1925. This instrument, using inductnace-capacitance principles with audi-frequency generators, avoided the glissando effects of Theremin. Meger, supported hy both the Heinrich Hertz Institute and the German Telegraph-Technical Office, performed mostly classical masterworks.
Concurrently with Mager’s creations in Germany, John Hays Hammond, creator of the Hammond organ, began experimenting with electrical sound production in the United States. His first effort, called the breathing piano, uses reflective slats withing a soundproof case that opens by the use of an extra pedal. While not explicity electronic, the concept paralleled that of regenerative procedures in radio.
By 1929, Eduard Coupleaux and Joseph Givelet had created the automatic synthesizer that they exhibited at the Paris Exposition, Their ” Automatically Operating Musical Instrument of the Electric Oscillation Type ” (AOMIEOT) utilized oscillators performed much the way player pianos operate (paper roll). However, both timbre alteration using filters and pitch blending for vibrato could be created with the potentials far exceeding the player piano.
One year later, Emerick Spielmann created the Superpiano, an instrument that utilizes devices to interrupt light on photoelectric cells that in turn generates alternating currents for pitch.
The ondes martenot represents one of the mos succesful pioneering electoacoustic musical instruments prior to present-day digital synthesizers. The ondes martenot was created by Maurice Martenot around 1928,but not fully developed until the mid-1920s. Dimitri Levidis’s Symphonic Poem used this instrument in its premiere. Looking like a clavichord, it follows the same basic principles of the Theremin but with a much more traditional look and touch. The monophonic pitch is controlled by a lateral movement of a fingering attached to a metal ribbon. Using an intiguing silencing device, performers can hide the glissandi so obvious when performing the Theremin.
Many composers including Olivier Messiarn, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honegger and Edgar Varese, effectively used the ondes martenot in their works. In 1936, Varese said, “I am sure that the time will come when the composer, after he has graphically realized his score, will see this score automatically put on a machine that will faithfully transmit the musical content to the listener…” (Varese 1936) A year later, John Cage remarked: “To make music… will continue to increase until we reach a music produced through the aid of electical instruments” (Cage, 1966)
French composer Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry developed musique concrete by recording natural sounds at various speeds and splicing together various lenghts of the tape to create rhythms. These experiments represent the first truly serious analog electro-acoustic music. The pioneering work of composers like Pecry Grainger (whose free music of 1935 used four Theremins) also explored electroacoustic resources. Along with Burnett Cross, Grainger later created a free music machine using various oscillators. The works of John Cage, Vladimir Ussachecsky, and Otto Luening brought attention to these new sound sources during the four-year period 1948-52-the years of real discovery and experimentation.
Milton Babitt’s Vision and Prayer (1961) and Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Mikrophonie I (1965) demonstrate the contrasting aspects of electronic and musique concrete composition. Vision and Prayer consists of pure electroacoustic sounds with the voice part carefully notated by the composer (Babitt 1964). Mikrophonie I involves the recording of two performers playing on one six-foot gong with music created primarily by performing processes such as grating, scraping, and so on. Two other performers control directional microphones, filters, and volume control.
Synthesizers enabled composers to control most pitches, dynamics, envelopes, durations, and, except for performances acoustics and audience receptivity, the performance itself.
Luciano BERIO comments : “When someone hears electronic music it doesn’t reverberate to other levels of his experience, as instrumental music has and does. Up to now I feel electronic music has been developing, evolving as a bridge between what we know and what we don’t know yet. It is not without reason that the best musical works that have been produced up until now (from the early 1950s to the present) and those that try to make this connection.”
May 18, 2011 § Leave a comment
Could piano lessons can make the child smarter? Does it help for concentration or what is the importance of piano in a child’s life? Just fun, an introduction to music or more?
Piano also improves focus and concentration .Learning the piano takes a bit of concentration and focus, such as coordination between hands and eye, coordination between both hands, coordination of feet and hands, as well as reading the notes and the ability to understand the rythm and tempo and translating all. With developing the coordination of hand and eye, your children will improve dexterity and motor skills.
One of the most important benefits of playing an instrument is obviously more confidence, your children will improve self-esteem. Obviously learning to play piano is hard work and a challange for the kid, each new piece will have different technical difficulties and will require different skills and playing styles. So the more they will improve their performance the more they will have confidence , which is very important in the day-life and for their development.
One of the most important benefits of piano education is that piano help preserve and improve creativity of the child.The best analogy of how children learn about music is from Donal Kroodsma’s book “The Singing Life of Birds” Every songbird can be indentified by the unique song it sings, but a baby has to be taught by its parents to sing the family song. Baby birds, like humans, just ” babble” at first. Mother birds sing the family song over and over to the baby birds as they try to repeat it back. At first, the baby birds are only able to sing bak one or two notes, but they gradually learn to sing the whole song. And birds with two voice boxes even learn to sing their own harmony parts!! Once baby birds learn the family song, they can start developing their very own songs. Likewise the children who are engaged with piano are oftenly composing their own music and developping their creativity, which leads to their own they life aswell. By taking piano lessons from little step to their future, children has become aware of their development and recognize the joy of hardwork.
Let’s quickly have a look on piano itself. Which instrument family is piano from? We can say that piano is both string and percussion. The piano is in the percussion family because the sound is generated from a hammer hitting a wire. When you press a piano key, there is a little hammer hitting a wire inside. The action of hammer is putting piano in the percussion family. So being both percussive and stringed instrument, gives piano a completely different sound and style that makes it the mother instrument. Almost all the instruments while being played will need an accompaniment of piano. When we look at the music literature we can easily see the big range of piano composition by all the composers. Even in composition education in schools, the first composition are asked to be written for piano. Regarding its richness and colorness piano is a wonderful and addicitve tool for all symphonies, concertos, chamber musics and solos.
As you can see, music is an amazing way to develop the children, not just for musical education but to help them develop better educationally, emotionally and personally. In the end even the child rejects taking piano lessons, like the baby songbirds, they will learn to sing and they will be thankful for being in music. Like Plato said : “Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.”
October 24, 2008 § Leave a comment
Why getting started by 1968? Is is a special year or period for me? No. Just a preview of history… Good times to begins Times of contemporary music for the claasicals, an experience with Hendrix. a space Odyysey with Kubrick with the notes of Atmospheres of Ligeti.. An other Beatles, Rolling Stones, kids in rock’n roll clubs.. Everything smillar everything close to those days… So what happened in 1968…Vietnam? Student protests in Europe specially in France…. What else? Martin Lutter Kings death….. Apollo 6…. Andy Warholls studio………and what else?
- January 4 – Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding.
- January 6 – Gibson Guitar Corporation patents its Gibson Flying V electric guitar design.
- January 13 – Johnny Cash performs his famous concert at Folsom Prison in California.
- January 21 – Simon and Garfunkel release album The Graduate Original Soundtrack.
- January – The Beatles launch Apple Corps, Ltd., a disastrously mismanaged entertainment company that included a recording studio, a record label, and clothing store.
- February 1
- February 12 – Jimi Hendrix is given an honorary high school diploma from Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington. Hendrix is also given the key to the city.
- February 16 – The Beatles, Mike Love, Mia Farrow, Donovan and others travel to India to visit the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at Rishikesh.
- February 18 – David Gilmour joins Pink Floyd, replacing founder Syd Barrett, who checked himself into a psychiatric hospital.
- February 21 – McGraw-Hill, Inc. outbids eight other publishers and pays $150,000 for the U.S. rights to Hunter Davies‘ authorized biography of the Beatles.
- February 22 – Florence Ballard of the Supremes is released from her contract with Motown.
- February 28 – Frankie Lymon dies.
- March 1 – Johnny Cash and June Carter got married in Franklin, Kentucky. Merle Kilgore was best man. He co-wrote “Ring of Fire.”
- March 8 – Bill Graham opens the Fillmore East in an abandoned movie theater in New York City.
- March 25 – The 58th and final new episode of The Monkees airs on NBC.
- March 26 – Blues artist Little Willie John dies in prison after being convicted of manslaughter.
- March 30 – The Yardbirds record their live album Live Yardbirds at the Anderson Theater.
- April 3 – Simon and Garfunkel release the critically acclaimed album Bookends.
- April 4 – James Brown appears on national television, in an attempt to calm feelings of anger in the United States following the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.
- April – The Beatles‘ new record company, and management and publishing firm, Apple Corps, Ltd., opens offices in London
- April 6 – Eurovision Song Contest held in the Royal Albert Hall, London. The winning song, Spain‘s “La La La” was sung by Massiel, but only because Spanish authorities wouldn’t allow Joan Manuel Serrat to perform it in Catalan.
- April 7 – Singer/pianist/songwriter Nina Simone‘s performance at Westbury Music Fair is dedicated to the murder of Dr. Martin Luther King. The song “Why? (the king of love is dead)” by Gene Taylor is performed for the first time. the show was partially released on the Emmy nominated album Nuff Said (1968).
- April 29 – The rock musical Hair opened on Broadway at the Biltmore Theatre.
- May 4 – Mary Hopkin performs on the British TV show Opportunity Knocks. Hopkin catches the attention of model Twiggy, who recommends her to Beatle Paul McCartney. McCartney would soon sign Hopkin to Apple Records.
- May 5 – Buffalo Springfield performs together for the last time in Long Beach, California.
- May 30 – The Beatles begin recording what would become their double-LP, thereafter known, for obvious reasons, as The White Album, but officially titled, simply, “The Beatles”. Sessions would span over 4 months, ending on October 14.
- June – Ogdens’ Nut Gone Flake album released by Small Faces
- July 7 – The Yardbirds perform for the last time before disbanding.
- July 18 – Mina presents her Italian white soul hits “Se stasera sono qui” and “Colpo al cuore”. The performance is transmitted live without playback from the Auditorio A of the Radiotelevisione Italiana regional headquarters in Naples.
- August 4 – Yes performs for the first time, at a summer camp.
- August 23 – Simon and Garfunkel give live concert at the Hollywood Bowl, Hollywood, California. Recording is later released on CD in 1994 by Australian company Vigotone Records as Voices of Intelligent Dissent.
- September 7 – Led Zeppelin performs for the first time; at their first show, they are billed as The Yardbirds (the Yardbirds had disbanded two months earlier, and guitarist Jimmy Page subsequently formed this new group).
- September 14 – The two small sons of singer Roy Orbison, Roy DeWayne Orbison age 10, and Anthony King Orbison age 6, die in a house fire in Hendersonville, Tennessee.
- November 8 – John Lennon and his wife Cynthia divorce.
- November 15 – 500,000 people march in Washington DC for peace, which becomes the largest anti-war rally in U.S. history. In attendance: Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Peter, Paul and Mary, John Denver, Mitch Miller, touring cast of Hair
- November 22 – The Beatles (also known as “The White Album”) by The Beatles is released
- November 26 – Cream plays their farewell concert at the Royal Albert Hall. It will be the last time Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker play together until their 1993 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
- December 1 – Jimi Hendrix’s manager Chas Chandler quits over differences with Hendrix during the recording of Electric Ladyland
- December 22 – The Animals reunite for one benefit concert at the Newcastle City Hall while Eric Burdon & The Animals are disbanding.
- New Jersey Police confiscate 30,000 copies of John Lennon and Yoko Ono‘s Two Virgins album at Newark Airport, saying that the cover, which features a nude photo of the two artists, is “pornographic”. In Chicago, Illinois, police officers shut down a record shop for displaying the album cover.
- December 3 – Elvis Presley‘s 1968 Comeback Special airs on NBC.
 Bands Formed
- Rush is formed in Toronto.
- The Band‘s musical career begins (changed name from The Hawks).
- James Taylor‘s musical career begins.
- Joni Mitchell‘s musical career begins.
- Free‘s musical career begins.
- The Carpenters‘ musical career begins.
- Warren Zevon‘s musical career begins.
- Deep Purple/Roundabout’s musical career begins.
- Nazareth‘s musical career begins.
- Yes begins
- Led Zeppelin begins musical career.
 Albums released
- A Banda Tropicalista – Rogério Duprat
- Any Day Now – Joan Baez
- Agemo’s Trip to Mother Earth – Group 1850
- Astral Weeks – Van Morrison
- At Folsom Prison (live) – Johnny Cash
- The Beatles (The White Album) – The Beatles
- Beggars Banquet – The Rolling Stones
- Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival – Bill Evans
- Bill Haley’s Biggest Hits – Bill Haley & His Comets
- The Birds, The Bees and The Monkees – The Monkees
- The Book of Taliesyn – Deep Purple
- Bookends – Simon and Garfunkel
- Cheap Thrills – Big Brother and the Holding Company
- Child is Father to the Man – Blood, Sweat & Tears
- Creedence Clearwater Revival – Creedence Clearwater Revival (debut)
- Crown of Creation – Jefferson Airplane
- Cruising with Ruben & the Jets – The Mothers of Invention
- Cycles – Frank Sinatra
- Dion – Dion DiMucci
- Diversions – Barry Booth
- Donovan in Concert; The Hurdy Gurdy Man – Donovan
- Dusty in Memphis – Dusty Springfield
- Easy Does It – Julie London
- Electric Ladyland – The Jimi Hendrix Experience
- Elvis’ Gold Records Volume 4 – Elvis Presley
- Every One Of Us – Eric Burdon & The Animals
- Fall Out – Terry Smith
- Francis A. & Edward K. – Frank Sinatra and Duke Ellington
- Friends – The Beach Boys
- From Sea to Shining Sea – Johnny Cash
- Gal Costa – Gal Costa
- God Bless Tiny Tim – Tiny Tim
- The Graduate Original Soundtrack – Simon and Garfunkel (incidental music by Dave Grusin)
- Head (Motion Picture Soundtrack) – The Monkees
- Heart of Cash – Johnny Cash
- Idea – The Bee Gees
- In Search of the Lost Chord – The Moody Blues
- John Wesley Harding – Bob Dylan
- Karyobin – Spontaneous Music Ensemble
- The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society – The Kinks
- Lady Soul – Aretha Franklin
- Last Time Around – Buffalo Springfield
- Look to Your Heart – Perry Como
- Love Is – Eric Burdon & The Animals
- Love Is Blue – The Lawrence Welk Orchestra
- Lumpy Gravy – Frank Zappa
- Magic Bus: The Who On Tour – The Who
- Misty Blue – Ella Fitzgerald
- Music from Big Pink – The Band
- Music In a Doll’s House – Family
- NBC-TV Special – Elvis Presley
- Nuff Said – Nina Simone
- Odessey and Oracle – The Zombies
- Old Golden Throat – Johnny Cash
- On Stage – Bill Haley & His Comets
- Ogdens’ Nut Gone Flake by Small Faces #1 in UK album chart.
- Only the Greatest – Waylon Jennings
- The Perry Como Christmas Album – Perry Como
- Recital na Boite Barroco – Maria Bethânia
- The Resurrection of Pigboy Crabshaw – Paul Butterfield Blues Band
- A Saucerful of Secrets – Pink Floyd
- Scott 2 – Scott Walker
- Scratching the Surface – The Groundhogs
- Shades of Deep Purple – Deep Purple
- Silver Apples – Silver Apples
- The Papas & The Mamas – The Mamas & The Papas
- The Sinatra Family Wish You A Merry Christmas – Frank Sinatra
- Speedway (OST) – Elvis Presley
- Sweetheart of the Rodeo – The Byrds
- Switched-On Bach – Walter Carlos
- Taj Mahal – Taj Mahal
- The Natch’l Blues – Taj Mahal
- Tell Mama – Etta James
- Le Temps des Fleurs – Dalida
- There Goes My Everything – Don Cherry
- This Was – Jethro Tull
- Traffic – Traffic
- The Transformed Man – William Shatner
- Turn Around, Look at Me – The Vogues
- The Twain Shall Meet – Eric Burdon & the Animals
- The United States of America – The United States of America
- Waiting for the Sun – The Doors
- We’re Only in It for the Money – Mothers of Invention
- Wheels of Fire – Cream
- White Light/White Heat – The Velvet Underground
- 30 by Ella – Ella Fitzgerald